Κυριακή, 2 Δεκεμβρίου 2012

GREEK MINORITY IN TURKEY


Introduction
Greeks lived in Asia Minor for centuries. At the Istanbul probably lived longer when it colonized its founders in the seventh century BC. Head of Eastern Christianity has been here since 4 Wed Anatolia and the western coast of Asia Minor was later an important center of Greek civilization. At the beginning of Christianity, there was a major Greek cities like Ephesus, Philadelpia, Pergamos and Smyrna. In the interior of Asia Minor, the presence of Greek culture and Christianity seen today in the form of churches and monuments which remained there for them. For example, even the Turkish name for Greece "Yunanistan" comes from the word Ionia, which indicates the region west coast of Asia Minor, where for centuries the Greeks established and where he developed strong ties in their community.
Terms Greek community reflect historical enmity between Turkey and Greece. This rivalry dates back to the time when the Ottoman Turks conquered the Byzantine capital of Constantinople in 1453. This led to four centuries of domination by the Turks over the Greeks. In some periods, relations between them quite calm, sometimes very acute. For example, in the 19 Wed Greeks held important administrative, judicial, economic and other positions in government. Having held many influential positions as diplomats, mayors, or even place belonged ambassador in Great Britain. Before the First World War were the Greeks of Istanbul ¼ of the population and were the second most influential ethnic group.
Identity
Before the founding of the Republic of Turkey was the identity of the Ottoman Empire based on religion. The term "Greek" was used only to citizens of the Greek state founded in 1830. This reflects two categories Greeks. The first are the members of the Greek Orthodox Church and the people of Turkey and the second group consists of citizens of the Greek state.
If you know how those people in Greek, they could identify as "Romios" designation for Ottoman Christians who derive their roots from the Byzantine or East-Roman Empire, but never themselves neoznačovali as "Ellines", ie people who identified with the newly established Greece .
Development
Cosmopolitan Greek intellectual and commercial center was Istanbul. Greek presence in the Fener district headquarters dominated the Greek Orthodox Church, the Greeks there were also influential position as translators. Members of the Greek community have been influenced by events in Western Europe, especially the French Revolution and the ideals and the Greek community in Odessa joined the movement for the liberation of the Greeks from the Ottoman Empire. Ottomans began to be seen as enemies, diaphragm Greek nationalism. After a military rebellion that broke out in 1821 on the Greek mainland, the violence also moved to Istanbul, where he was murdered Greek Patriarch and the main translator. These events significantly damaged relations between the Greeks of Fener and Ottoman ruling elite. This ruling class did not bring any benefit, since they were very dependent upon the Greeks. Greek translators them the news were from Western Europe.
When the convention of 1832, Greece declared an independent state, its population was only about 800,000, while the Greeks at the hands of Ottoman rule still remained around 2.4 million. It was a sign of future Greek iredentistických efforts.
At a time of social and political reforms "Tanzimat" 1839-1876 was guaranteed to all entities Ottoman Empire citizenship, regardless of religion and nationality. This could for example be Greeks and gain political power. For this purpose, established in 1908, the "Society of Constantinipole". Though the support of the Greek State, the latter more or less did not represent its official policy. Share political power Pavlos Carolidis received, among others, who became deputy in the Ottoman Parliament Izmir.
In 1995 lived in Turkey, only less than 2,000 Greeks. Most of them are Eastern or Greek Orthodox Christians living in Istanbul or on two islands Gökçeada (Imbros) and Bozca Ada (Tenedos), at the western approach to the Dardanelles. They are the remains of an estimated 200,000 Greeks who were authorized under the provisions of the Treaty of Lausanne remain in Turkey after the exchange of populations in 1924, which included the forcible relocation of approximately 2 million Greeks from Anatolia. Since 1924, the status of the Greek minority in Turkey ambiguous. In 1965, the estimated population of Greeks at 48 000th Although the size of the Greek minority continues to decline, the Greek citizens of Turkey generally is one of the richest minorities in the country.

Treaty of Lausanne
After the First World War, the victorious Allied powers signed a separate peace agreement with each of the Central Powers and their allies. In the case of Turkey, and in the light of subsequent developments, which provide the Sevres Treaty of 1920, a contract was signed in Lausanne on the 24th July 1923. The Treaty of Lausanne specify the conditions under which he restored peace with Turkey. Incorporated in it an agreement signed between this country and Greece in January of the same year, which were part of the solution "Eastern Question."
Convention of Lausanne specified the conditions for the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey and created a precedent for future exchange of population between states. The inspiration for this project were refugees from Asia Minor who settled in the 20th years in Piraeus. Agreement Lausanne movement caused nearly 1.5 million people. One of these agreements was the "Convention for compulsory population exchange between the two countries." Exchange related to the Greek-Orthodox nationals of Turkey and Muslim nationals of Greece. These residents without the consent of the governments of Greece and Turkey after the exchange could not return to their original homeland. As the patriarch of the Eastern Christian Church was located in Istanbul, replacement of the population under the Treaty of Lausanne did not include the Greek community of Istanbul and the Greeks on Imvros and Tenedos. On the other hand, also did not include the Muslim population in Thrace. For the Greeks, this represents the "Asia Minor Catastrophe", an even bigger blow than the loss of Constantinople in 1453.
It is important to say that the exchange of populations had two phases. The first was an emergency situation after the defeat of the Greek army in 1922, the second was more or less organized between 1923-1926 under the agreement. According to official records, relocated after 1923 189 916 Greeks and 355,635 Muslims. Lord Curzon Statistics indicates that before the First World War, lived in Anatolia 1.6 million Greeks, whose population by the end of 1922 fell to 500 000
 In accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Lausanne, 73,000 Greeks were granted Turkish citizenship, while 30,000 Greek citizens permanently resident in Istanbul remained, based on a separate Protocol signed on the same day, members of the Greek-Orthodox community. Given that families as well as businesses of this population were closely linked with Constantinople, this population represented an integral part of the city. Turkish side accepted their right to stay in their place of birth. It was not only the result of the Treaty of Lausanne, as well as Greco-Turkish Conventions signed in July and October 1930th
Despite the obligations arising from the contract, the Turks were tolerant of minorities living in their country. While hovering over Europe threat of Nazism, Turkey refused to play any role in the Western world fight for democratic ideals and declared neutrality. At the same time, however, were all Greeks aged 18-45 years mobilized and subsequently deported to special labor camps in the interior of Asia Minor.
In addition, in November 1942, Ankara has issued force "Varlik vergisi" law, which imposed a wealth tax on property. The provisions of this law were enforced with exceptional zeal, especially against the property non-Muslim minorities. As a result, the Greeks were forced to liquidate all its assets, but because they still have not been able to meet the obligations imposed, were forced to flee from their homes and sent to forced labor. Although the Greek minority at that time consisted of only 0.5% of the total population, their tax country gained 20% of the total revenue. This measure was the most serious breach of SMOUV Lausanne, especially the part about the protection of minorities.
1955
After a brief lull began a new period of crisis for the Greek minority affairs in Cyprus and resulted in anti-Greek demonstrations in Istanbul and Izmir in September 1955. 6th and 7 broke out in September 1955 in Istanbul against a well-organized Greek uprising. The crowd, led by Turkish authorities went out into the streets, and their attacks were carried out solely against the Greeks, and their property. More than 4,000 Greek shops were looted, 38 churches burned, another 35 were damaged. The main monastery and cemetery were also affected. More than 2,000 houses were looted Greek, as well as 52 Greek schools. 3 people were injured and 30 kill them. According to other sources, however, kill them 15 people. Violence was partly a response to the bomb blast at the Turkish Consulate in Thessaloniki, the day before. The blast partially destroyed the birthplace of Ataturk. Rejecting any protection from the Turkish side resulted in a dramatic reduction of the Greek state in Istanbul.
1964-1965
Another event that took place in 1964, in connection with the increasing tension in Cyprus. Subsequently, Ankara canceled the Greco-Turkish Convention of 1930, which led to a mass expulsion of 12,600 Greeks living in Istanbul and prevents its assets in Turkey. 16th March Turkish government began expelling the Greeks with Greek citizenship. These people were the Greeks, who were born in Turkey, but we have chosen for themselves Greek citizenship. They were allowed to take only 22 dollars and one suitcase with clothes. Greeks was not allowed to sell their homes and property or to take money from their bank accounts. The ban was lifted only in 1989. In the following years many Greeks with Turkish citizenship in fear for their lives and property left their homes and moved to Greece or other parts of the world. Abandoned property in the heart of Istanbul, such as the Greco-Armenian quarter Tarlabasi became the refuge of immigrants, Kurds and Roma. Due to unresolved ownership rights of the houses nobody cared and their current situation is deplorable. Formerly one of the wealthy parts of the city today is home to prostitutes and drug dealers. Several thousand buildings awaiting demolition, which started this year. At the end of this process should be the revitalization of the neighborhood. But not everyone agrees, and especially the Greeks to leave cladnými.
 The decline of the Greeks in Istanbul was caused solely intolerable conditions under which they were forced to live. Due to these conditions, the Greek community of Istanbul, which in 1922 numbered 270,000 people now has only about 2,500 people.

Greeks on Imvros and Tenedos
 These two small islands located in the northeast corner of the Aegean Sea, close to the mouth of the Dardanelles. In 1912, after the Balkan wars of the Ottoman Greeks conquered islands. After twelve years, the Greek government, the two islands were allocated to Turkey, since they were of strategic importance and Turks are considered necessary for their safety. However, the Treaty of Lausanne recognized the inherent right of self-determination of the Greek inhabitants of these two islands. Article 14 of the Lausanne provided special status of these islands. Turkey not only rejected this law, but sought to eliminate the Greek element in the islands. With the exception of a brief period between 1951 and 1963, was banned teaching of the Greek language on Imvros and Tenedos. Between 1960 and 1990 destroyed 200 churches and chapels. Greek citizens are discriminated nearly as well today. They disconnected electricity in the winter on the road to their villages is not scoured snow. Frequent are also physical abuse by the Turks.
 Life on the Greek islands of Imbros and Tenedos reflects the most egregious violations of rules of the Treaty of Lausanne. A key factor that forced the Greek people to leave the islands was the installation of an open prison for criminals from mainland Turkey. In this way, Ankara breached the provisions of the Treaty of Lausanne that expropriated 95% of arable land belonging to the Greeks Imvros. The result of this policy was to reduce the exclusively Greek population Imvros from 8000 in 1922 to 400 people today. Tenedos suffered a similar decline in its Greek population that numbered 5,320 in 1922. Today it lives only 100 Greeks. The two, however, there has been progress on Imvros was canceled exclusive military zone and the prison was moved elsewhere.

Izmir
The western coast of Anatolia attracted migrants from the Greek Aegean Sea, but also from the Peloponnese. It was the result of wars and natural disasters, but also a vision of a better life that is led to the late 17th century. Migration was accelerated in the 70th the 18th century due to favorable circumstances canaries contract Küçük (1774) and also due to the favorable conditions of international trade. This initiated an era of prosperity Izmir. The city's harbor was the center of the whole region. After the signing of the Anglo-Turkish Treaty of 1838 the Greeks seized the benefits of free trade. In this atmosphere of liberal trade and imperial tensions, they are often the statute was declared "protégés" or were even subjects of foreign powers. The Ottoman government has profited greatly from the total and even encouraged them. Adoption of a new constitution, welcomed all residents of Greeks, Armenians, Turks and Jews. During the following months, the situation began to deteriorate very excited and turned into fear and apprehension. Train strikes or sinking company Hamidye where 200 people drowned in Izmir, brought the city to the brink of anarchy. The authorities did not try to dress order for fear of "Young Turks" and not local to their own devices. Then, I could only dispute between two soldiers at a bazaar in the European part of the city to create a panic. Where shops were closed, humans sought refuge in churches and monasteries. Demonstration was organized by students of Greek, Turkish and Armenian schools, which passed through the town and stopped at all consulates in order to establish understanding between communities and intrigue condemnation of those who are trying to stand against each other.
 Izmir functioned as a magnet, pulling here many minority and foreign businessmen seeking better conditions for business and life to them is this city had to offer. In Izmir there permanently Greek-Orthodox community, speaking Greek. The Greeks, who came from but most could not Antaólie Greek word. Their language was Turkish. After arrival in Izmir tried to integrate into the local community. The first generation started to learn Greek, other then attended Greek school, as in Izmir, Istanbul, and many parents send their children to study in Athens. Izmir was so important city that the Greeks have migrated here after he founded Greek state that will not offer such an option by far. Many of these native Greeks from Anatolia, Turkey had surnames. Those who later voluntarily moved to Greece, it usually asked, but those who were subject population exchanges after 1923 and were transferred to Greece changed his last name to the Greek state. And so mainly in Northern Greece we find the surname, which was just changing the endings of "oglu" to "IDIS" (Toulgeroglu-Toulgeridis).

Black Sea coast
The Turkish Black Sea port of Trabzon was the cream of the Greek financial services, education and culture. The central part of the Black Sea coast were many Greek Orthodox Christians were deported from their homes and charged kolaborování with the Imperial Army, which at that time occupied the northeastern Anatolia.



Ayvali and Mytilene
Ayvali was purely Greek, while the Christian city of Mytilene on the headquarters of the Ottoman navy, and there was therefore a permanent Turkish and Muslim population. Port Ayvali since 1830 was a bastion of Greek prosperity, culture and education. Local residents benefited greatly from export and import business. At the beginning of the 20th Wed the local Greek population in both Ayvali on Mytilene and was so good that it did not consider the connection to the Greek state. Since 1912, however, the region has been severely affected by the crisis between Christians and Muslims. During the Balkan war was occupied by Greece Mytilene and streamed here many Muslim refugees who pushed the local Greeks.

Education
In 1961 he was appointed a law that all schools of ethnic minorities fall under separation of private schools and is therefore not covered by the protection of the Treaty of Lausanne. In 1964 he was banned in Greek schools morning prayer, Greek textbooks and encyclopedias. Between 1923-1954, the number of students from 15,000 in 5000 later to 816 in 1980 and just 410 in 1991. Greek children in elementary school every Monday morning had to recite verses Ataturk "How lucky I am to be a Turk."
Progress in recent years has been the Minister of Education to allow this year's Greek community on the island of Gökçeada (Imbros) open primary school. Although the estimated attendance is very low, since the Greek population of the island is between 180 to 200 people, the school should be a hope for the future of the Greek community. The 250 Greeks occurs in several Greek schools in Istanbul. But as "Zografyon Greek High School" has only 40 students. Others are "Zapyon Greek Primary and High School of İstanbul" at the time of inception in 1875, attended by over 1,500 students, today it is just 110th Previously, it was only in Istanbul on 80 Greek schools. If you should be open to elementary school on the island Gökçeada, some Greek family from Istanbul or Athens would return here.

Research from 1991
According to research by Helsinki Watch Greek community in Istanbul is aging and shrinking their members. Thanks pogroms and actions the Turkish government, the local population declined from 110,000 in 1923 to just 2,000 in 1991 (under the "Constantinopolitan Society in Athens"). Of these, 350 are retired or mentally disabled, living in facilities supported by the Greek community. In addition, there were also 410 children and students, and 55 priests. Problems included the Greek minority at the time of research, restrictions on freedom of expression, discrimination in education, restriction of religious freedom. These problems were related to the population of the two islands of Imbros and Tenedos. Many Greeks researchers were unwilling to discuss their problems, fearing reprisals from the Turkish government. According to the Istanbul Branch "Turkey human rights association" were the Greeks at this time under more pressure than the Kurds or Armenians. In this research, it was found to be the biggest problem of education. Greek children not allowed to teach Greek history, Greek teachers could not come to Istanbul before the school year began, textbooks were outdated. According to Patriarch Bartholomew I just whose registered office is in Istanbul would be, but relations have improved in the coming years. Even been allowed repair parts patriarchy destroyed in 1941. Neither the government nor interfere in the election of the Patriarch. On the other hand, in the election to lead Greek hospitals, the government has eliminated almost all the members of the proposed Greek community. In 1991, the Greek community is still owned 600 buildings in Istanbul in 1991. At the time the research was spent in Istanbul in two Greek-language newspapers. Apart from members of the Greek community had also received a copy of the mayor of Istanbul. It was also forbidden to import into the country magazines and newspapers directly from Greece.


The situation today
Due to the economic crisis in Greece, some Greeks returned to Turkey, especially in Istanbul, therefore, in search of a better life. Many of them find work such as private schools or universities. Turkey prefer mainly because of distance, because they can go home more often than, for example Western Europe. The increasing number of Greeks coming to Istanbul is also indicated some progress in relations between the two countries. View of Turkey is changing. Dying Greek community so again gaining strength. Previously, the young Greeks after education migrated mostly to Greece, today remain. There are no official sources the number of Greeks in Istanbul works, but their number is growing. I have personally met a Greek student at Erasmus, who plans to stay here to work. As can Turkish, probably will not have a problem with the attached. And according to her statement, even if you are earning less than in Greece still due to lower cost of living in Turkey profitable.

Conclusion
Trying to break into the current situation of the Greek minority in Turkey was much more difficult than I expected. Historical data to find quite a lot already, and many of the life of the Greeks in Turkey was written. Current data, however, power is not available and if they are, they are either only in Turkish, or are rough estimates as to the number of inhabitants. Although somewhere can read about improving relations, the reality does not seem to me so much. Head patriarch surrounded by barbed wire, many churches also, opposite the Greek embassy hung a giant Turkish flag. When I went through a Greek friend Fener district of Istanbul, one schoolboy upon him, after he found that the Greek Turkish shouted "slave". Personally, any river, which would permanently lived in Turkey know and run into him at 2500 shares: 12,000,000 would be much of a coincidence. I tried, therefore, at least photographically document the Greek presence in Turkey, or rather what was left for them here.
Bc. Dominika Jíchová
Absolvent of Bachelor Degree of Political and Cultural Geography
Former Greek Fener district (Istanbul)
 Head of the Greek Patriarch

Greek Zografyon High School, Istanbul

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